Electrocoagulation flotation package (ECF)
The use of electric current for water purification was first tested in England in 1889. In 1909, Harris introduced the electrochemical technology for the treatment of wastewater using aluminum and iron electrodes. In 1984, a wastewater treatment plant was developed by Wake that used electrolysis to treat sewage mixed with seawater in London. In 1956, river water was treated by electrocoagulation and the use of iron electrodes in United Kingdom. In 1995, Matson designed an apparatus using the electrochemical mechanism, which was introduced in 1940 under the name of electronic coagulant. In 1995, Lin examined the removal of ammonia and nitrite from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor.
In electrocoagulation, known as electric flocculation and flotation, sacrificial anode is used for the removal of suspended particles, organic compounds, dyes, metal ions and inorganic anions and various types of compounds from water. The application of electrochemical technologies in the water & wastewater industry is very diverse. This technique has been used in various industries to remove a wide range of pollutants. This treatment method is capable of breaking fat and oil emulsions in water, removing organic matter from water, fluoridation, deduction of sulfate compounds, urban and restaurant wastewater treatment and elimination of heavy metals, arsenic and phenolic compounds.
Electrocoagulation is used for the treatment of various wastewaters including:
- Dairy industry
- Chips production,
- Yeast and dough production
- Metal plating,
- Textile industries
- Tile & ceramic factories
- Oil & petrochemical industry
- Wastewater from construction sites
- Wastewaters from livestock units
- Radioactive wastewaters
The overall mechanism of electrocoagulation/flotation is the simultaneous combination of different mechanisms exacerbating the performance of each other. The main mechanism in the process can act as a progressive reaction through dynamic processes and vary with the type of pollutant and environmental and operational parameters. The process is consisted of three steps:
- Coagulant formation through the dissolution of metallic ions released from anode;
- Breaking emulsions and instability of pollutants and suspended particles;
- Accumulation of unstable phases and floc formation.
Advantages of electrocoagulation and floatation on other treatment methods:
- The installation cost is very low compared to conventional treatment systems
- Reducing operational costs of the treatment system
- Requires minimum space for installation
- Decreasing the use of chemicals
- Reducing land needed for the treatment
- Ease of sludge dewatering and management
- No need for a professional operator
- Simple, automatic and continuous operation
- Deduction of the process units in the treatment plant
- Minimal operating problems compared to chemical and biological methods
Setting-up & installation
“Shamim Sharif” electrocoagulation package is pre-fabricated and can be installed in the place in the shortest time. The package is portable and occupies the minimum area compared to similar treatment methods (about one tenth).
Also, improvement and upgrading the system according to the increase of the wastewater flow based on customer needs and factory development is very simple and feasible in this method. Furthermore, the installation cost is very low compared to conventional treatment systems.
The removal efficiency of electrocoagulation flotation method for various parameters is represented in the following table:
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